admixtures ajo sacha Ayahuasca banisteriopsis caapi Botany chacruna Fashion Indigenous Worlds Introductions iowaska limpia master plants mucura plant teachers plants Psychotria viridis shamanic medicine taxonomy yage

Plants of Ayahuasca Shamanism –

banisteriopsis caapi

Artwork : Caapi Goals by Donna Torres, 2016
© Donna Torres. Used with categorical permission. Go to her web site at

That is an introductory rookies information to a number of crops considerably related to Ayahuasca shamanism. The forest is a ‘college of Life’ by which the shaman research. Studying of the medicinal and religious qualities of every plant is a part of the trail of Vegetalismo.


Banisteriopsis caapi – Ayahuasca, Oni, Yage
Psychotria Viridis -Chacruna
Cyperus – Piripiri
Nicotiana tabacum – Mapacho
Brugmansia suaveolens – Toé
Brunfelsia grandiflora – Manacá, Chiric sanango
Tynnanthus panurensis – Clavohuasca
Anadenanthera colubrina – Vilca
Salvia Divinorum – ska María Pastora
Mimosa Hostilis – Jurema


Banisteriopsis caapi – Ayahuasca, Oni, Yage

banisteriopsis caapi
Indigenous names -yagé, huasca, rambi, shuri, ayahuasca, nishi oni, népe, xono, datém, kamarampi, Pindé, natema, iona, mii, nixi, pae, ka-hee, mi-hi, kuma-basere, and so on

Taxonomy – Malpighiaceae (liana household)

Feedback – The Banisteriopsis vine is a Malpighiaceous jungle liana discovered all through Amazonian Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, western Brazil, and in parts of the Río Orinoco basin. It’s employed throughout the Amazon basin for the remedy of illness and to entry to the visionary or mythological world that gives revelation, blessing, therapeutic, and ontological safety (Dobkin De rios 1972, Andritsky 1984). Banisteriopsis caapi constitutes the widespread base ingredient of Ayahuasca, the place it’s ‘married’ with different crops, comparable to Psychotria viridis (chacruna) or Diplopterys cabrerana (chagropanga, chaliponga, oco-yage). Banisteriopsis caapi accommodates beta-carbolines that exhibit sedative, hypnotic, entheogenic, anti-depressant and monoamine oxidase inhibiting exercise (McKenna DJ, Callaway JC, Grob CS 1996). Moreover, the tea constitutes a posh and numerous indigenous pharmacopia, with many different crops added relying on particular medicinal or religious intentions. These embrace Brugmansia suaveolens (Toe), Brunfelsia grandiflora (Chiric sanango), Tynnanthus panurensis (Clavohuasca), Cyperus (Piripiri), Petivaria alliacea (Mucura, Anamu), and Mansoa hymenaeamanilkara (ajos sacha) amongst many others.

the Ayahuasca vine

the Ayahuasca vine

Using Ayahuasca might be primordial, its use extending again to the earliest aboriginal inhabitants of the area (Schultes and Hofman 1992). The oldest recognized object thought to narrate to using ayahuasca is a ceremonial cup, hewn out of stone, with engraved ornamentation, which was discovered within the Pastaza tradition of the Ecuadorean Amazon from 500 B.C. to 50 A.D (Naranjo, 1979, 1986). The patterning of conventional textiles, pottery and physique artwork of varied tribes may also be partially attributed to the visionary type constants of shamanic perceptions. The abundance of myths describing the origin of Ayahuasca as deeply intertwined cosmologically with the creation of the universe, earth, and tribal individuals, suggests an extended historical past of human use. “… numerous indigenous teams all consider that the visionary vine is a car which makes the primordial accessible to humanity.” (Luna, 2000). Ayahuasca is probably the most revered and revered sacred drugs of the New World.

Psychotria Viridis -Chacruna

Indigenous names – Chacruna, Amirucapanga, Kawa-kui, Rami-Appani

Taxonomy – Rubiaceae (espresso household)

Feedback – The foliage of Psychotria viridis is a precept admixture of Ayahuasca potions employed all through Amazonian Peru, Ecuador and Brazil, ready with Banisteriopsis caapi to make the ceremonial therapeutic drugs Ayahuasca.

In Columbia, the plant Diplopterys cabrerana is usually used as an alternative. The mixture of Yage vine with Chacruna is usually often known as ‘The Marriage’ of ‘energy’ (caapi) and ‘mild’ (viridis), with Chacruna thought-about female in relation to the Grandfather Yage. The shamanic ‘mareación’ occasioned by ‘The Marriage’ is used for the aim of shamanic therapeutic, imaginative and prescient, and private and collective integration.

Cyperus – Piripiri

Indigenous names – Piripiri, Ibenkiki.

Taxonomy – Household Cyperaceae (Sedge household)

Feedback – Individuals all through the Amazon domesticate quite a few styles of sedges for a variety of makes use of. The Machiguenga and Shuar use sedge rhizomes and bulb tops of Cyperus to deal with complications, fevers, cramps, dysentry, wounds, childbirth, and to enhance weaving and searching expertise.

Cyperus species are congenitally infested with Balansia cyperi Edg. (Clavicipitaceae), a fungi proven to supply “a number of unidentified ergot alkaloids” (Plowman et al., 1990). Amongst these alkaloids, a few of that are poisonous, there are some, like ergonovine and ergine, recognized to have psychoactive properties (Bigwood et al., 1979).

Within the Amazon basin, the Sharanahua Indians add powdered rhizomes of Cyperus to Ayahuasca potions (Schultes & Raffauf 1990). This can be Cyperus prolixus (Mckenna et al. 1986). Cyperus are additionally reported to be smoked in shamanistic practices (Plowman et al., 1990, Schultes & Raffuf 1990), and are additionally reportedly utilized in eyedrops by Shipibo-Conibo ladies in connection to the normal Quiquin therapeutic designs and textiles.

Nicotiana tabacum – Mapacho

Indigenous names – Mapacho, Lukux-ri (Yukuna); ye’-ma (Tariana); a’-li (Naked); e’-li (Baniwa); mu-lu’, pagári-mulé (Desano); kherm’-ba (Kofán); dé-oo-wé (Witoto)

Taxonomy – Solanaceae, Nightshade Household, Potato Household

Feedback – Nicotiana are native in North and South America, particularly within the Andes (45 species) and in Polynesia and Australia (21 species). Tobacco is among the most necessary crops within the lives of all tribes of the northwest Amazon (Wilbert, 1987). Related to purity, fertility and fecundity, it performs a serious position in healing rituals and necessary tribal ceremonies. Leisure use is rare.

Tobacco is employed within the medical practices of many tribes. The Tukanoan peoples of the Vaupés typically rub a decoction of the leaves briskly over sprains and bruises. Amongst the Witotos and Boras, recent leaves are crushed and poulticed over boils and contaminated wounds. The Jivaros of Ecuador take tobacco juice therapeutically for indisposition, chills and snake bites, and in addition throughout conflict preparations, victory feasts and shamanic ritual.

Nicotiana is used throughout the Amazon “as a change agent aspect by aspect with Anadenanthera, Banisteriopsis, Trichocerus pachanoi… and Virola within the jaguar complicated and lycanthropy usually” (Wilbert 1987). The ayahuasqueros of Perú combine tobacco juice with Ayahuasca, crushing the leaves and softening them with saliva, leaving the juice in a single day in a gap reduce into the trunk of the lupuna tree (Trichilia tocachcana), the sap of which drips into the tobacco juice. Amongst the western Tukanos of Colombia and Brazil, curanderos give their college students tobacco juice to trigger purging and shamanic journeying. Amongst the Quichua of Eudador, the aspiring shaman should apprentice with tobacco juice throughout their coaching.

Probably the most widespread components to Ayahuasca, the Shuar, Shipibo and Piro, Machigenga, Cocama, Barasana, Aguaruna and Campa vegetalista’s imbibe tobacco juice (of n.tabacum and n.rustica) or lick ‘ambil’ (an edible tobacco preparation) with Banisteriopsis Caapi (Wilbert 1997). Tobacco can also be smoked within the ceremonies and healing rituals of sure tribes such because the Lamista, Shipibo, and mestizo curanderos, who blow smoke over the Ayahuasca brew and over the sufferers, mixed with applicable icaros.

This tobacco is nearly unrecognisable from business tobacco. It’s with out chemical remedy and components, and has a perfume that the Spirit of Ayahuasca is claimed to love (Luna & Amaringo 1991). Tobacco is prime to the world-view of the American shaman (Wilbert 1991).

Brugmansia suaveolens – Toé

Indigenous names – Toé; Floripondio; Maricahua; Campana; Borachero; Toa; Maikoa (Jivaro); Chuchupanda (Amahuaca); Aiipa (Amarakaeri); Haiiapa (Huachipaeri); Saaro (Machiquenga); Gayapa y Kanachijero (Piro-Yine); Kanachiari (Shipibo-Conibo), Angels Tears, Angels Trumpet.

Taxonomy – Solanaceae (Nightshade)

Feedback – The household Solanaceae are probably the most widespread and extensively used class of imaginative and prescient inducing crops (Ott 1996). Typically referred to as the ‘tree Daturas’, Brugmansia at the moment are acknowledged by botanists as deserving of a definite taxonomic standing inside the household Solanaceae. All species of the genus are native solely to South America. Brugmansia suaveolens, a 10 foot tall flowering bush, grows within the tropical lowlands of the Amazon the place it’s used as a shamanic inebriant and as an Ayahuasca admixture (Schultes & Raffauf 1992). The shamanic use of Brugmansia is concentrated primarily within the west: alongside the Andean and Pacific fringe of the continent from Colombia right down to southern Peru and the center of Chile. The crops are extensively traded for each their psychoactive properties and decorative worth. The Kamsa and Ingano individuals of the Sibundoy Valley within the Columbian Andes distribute numerous species all through the Amazon.

Brugmansia can also be typically used together with tobacco. The current-day Tzeltal Indians of Mexico smoke the dried leaves of B. suaveolens with Nicotiana rustica with a view to acquire visions that point out the reason for numerous illnesses. The Jivaros use Brugmansia in initiation rituals to speak with the ancestor spirits. The Jivaro Indians of japanese Ecuador and Peru used species of Brugmansia in a decoction which was taken as an enema by their warriors ‘to realize energy and foretell the longer term’ (De Smet 1983). A Jivaro boy as younger as six might take Brugmansia or Ayahuasca underneath the supervision of his father with a view to create an ‘exterior soul’, a ‘psychic ‘organ’ able to speaking with the ancestors by way of visionary experiences (Rudgley 2000).

The brugmansia genus is usually wealthy in anticholinergenic alkaloids, hyoscyamine, atropine, and scopolamine. Substances which block cholinergic transmission intrude with the operation of the parasympathetic nervous system, and should end in toxicity or dying due to motion on primary life-support features (Winkelman 1999). Since tropane alkaloids are extraordinarily poisonous in very small quantities, curanderos use toé very cautiously, an area informant has written that just one leaf is utilized in an Ayahuasca tea to be consumed by 5-10 individuals. Using Brugmansia for magical functions is the province of skillful grasp curanderos solely.

Brunfelsia grandiflora – Manacá, Chiric sanango

Indigenous names – Manacá, Manacán, Chiriguayuasa, Chiric sanango, Chuchuwasha, Manaka, Vegetable Mercury, Managá Caa, Gambá, Jeratacaca

Taxonomy – Household Solanaceae

Feedback – Manacá is a medium sized shrubby tree rising as much as eight meters in peak and is indigenous to the Amazon Rainforest. It may be discovered within the Amazon areas of Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Columbia and Venezuela. Manacá has an extended historical past of indigenous use within the Rainforest as each a medicinal plant and a magical plant. It’s widespread identify Manacá, comes from the Tupi Indians in Brazil, who named it after probably the most lovely woman within the tribe, Manacán, due to its lovely flowers.

The lively constituents of Manacá embrace the alkaloids Manaceine and Manacine, scopoletin and Aesculetin. Manaceine and Manacine are considered liable for stimulating the lymphatic system whereas Aesculetin has demonstrated analgesic and anti inflammatory actions. Scopoletin is a well-known phytochemical which has demonstrated analgesic, antiasthmatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antitumor, CNS-stimulant, cancer-preventive, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, myorelaxant, spasmolytic and uterosedative exercise.

It’s used inside religious and medicinal contexts by many tribal peoples together with the Kofan, Siona, Ingano, Runa and Shuar, who’re recognized so as to add the bark, leaves or roots to Ayahuasca (Kohn 1992; Plowman 1977; Schultes and Raffauff 1990). It’s also used alone as an entheogen by the Kofan and Siona-Secoya peoples. Shamans think about B. grandiflora a religious information (Plowman 1977).

An informant has written that 2-3g per individual is utilized in native contexts for stimulation of the lymphatic system and as an ayahuasca admixture. This herb might be harmful in extreme doses.

Tynnanthus panurensis – Clavohuasca

tynnanthus panurensis
Indigenous names – Manacá, Manacán, Chiriguayuasa, Chiric sanango, Chuchuwasha, Manaka, Vegetable Mercury, Managá Caa, Gambá, Jeratacaca

Taxonomy – Household Bignoniaceae

Feedback – “Our informants consider that the spirits of those admixtures current themselves both in the course of the hallucinations elicited by the beverage or within the goals following the intoxication, and that they confide in the provoke their pharmacological properties. Our informants additionally recognise the synergistic impact that typically happens when a number of crops are taken collectively. This idea is predicated on the concept these crops “know one another” or “go nicely collectively,” whereas different crops “don’t like one another.” (D McKenna 1995)

Tynnanthus panurensis, Clavohuasca (‘clavo’ = ‘clove’ , ‘huasca’ = ‘vine’) is a big woody vine that grows as much as 80 meters in size which is indigenous to the Amazon rainforest and different elements of tropical South America. The vine bark has a stong distinctive clove-like aroma, incomes it widespread identify, Clove Vine. The vine cross-section has a particular maltese cross corazon.

In addition to the rubiaceous admixtures akin to Psychotria Viridis virtually all the time included in Ayahuasca, a number of admixtures are employed relying on the magical, ritual, or medical functions for which the potion is being made and consumed (Schultes 1957; Pinkley 1969; Rivier and Lindgren 1972; Luna 1984; McKenna et al.1984). Clavohuasca is one such Ayahuasca admixture (Burman, Luna 1984),

Clavohuasca is historically ready by macerating the vine bark and wooden in alcohol or mostly, the native sugar cane rum referred to as aguardiente. In Brazilian natural drugs, the plant known as Cipó Cravo and it’s thought-about a superb treatment for dyspepsia, troublesome digestion, and intestinal fuel (brewed as a water decoction) in addition to an aphrodisiac (macerated in alcohol right into a tincture). Indian tribes within the Amazon in each Peru (Shipibo-Conibo) and Brazil (Kayapo, and Assurini) extremely regard Clavohuasca as an efficient aphrodisiac for each women and men.

There isn’t any revealed medical research as but on Clavohuasca. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation by Brazilian scientists have found an alkaloid they named “tinantina” in addition to tannic acids, eugenol and different important oils.

Anadenanthera colubrina – Vilca

Indigenous names – Vilca, Cebil (Argentina), Huilca, Angico preto (Brazil), Curupay-atá (Paraguay).
Anadenanthera colubrina
Taxonomy – Household Leguminosae

Feedback – Anandenanthera colubrina is mimosa-like tree that happens round N. Chile within the Andes, the place Argentina & Bolivia meet. It may develop to 80 foot excessive and have a trunk diameter of as much as 2-Three foot. The seeds of A.colubrina has been employed by way of snuff, enema and smoked preperations for medicinal and shamanistic functions for ~4000 years by the Inca and different cultures of Argentina and Southern Peru, as evidenced by the presence of cebil seeds in preceramic ranges (2130 B.C.) at Incacueva, a website within the northwest of Humahuaca within the Puna border of the Province of Jujuy, Argentina (M. L. Pochettino, A. R. Cortella, M. Ruiz. 1999).

The seeds of A. colubrina are nonetheless used to remedy the sick, profit and shield the group, and for oracular or divinatory functions (Logan 2001), by the Mataco Indians of the Rio Bermejo and Rio Pilcomayo space of Argentina (Repke 1992; Torres 1992) the place it is called huilca or vilca and cébil (Altschul 1967).

When it comes to it’s utilization alongside Ayahuasca, it has been reported that “Tiwanakuans, just like the Guahibo at the moment, mixed sniffing Anadenanthera with chewing the ayahuasca vine” (Beyer, referencing Torres & Repko, 2006, p. 73); and that “the Piaroa at this time, pounded shoots of the ayahuasca vine right into a paste together with Anadenanthera seeds” (Rodd, 2002).

In addition to the seeds, an exudate that’s secreted from the leaf ideas seems to exhibit entheogenic properties (Logan 2001). This exudate attracts ants which serves to guard the plant from predators. Crops want full daylight and like well-drained soil. Let the soil dry utterly between watering. A. colubrina can deal with some brief time period freezing circumstances.

Calea zacatechichi – Thle-pelakano

Indigenous names – Thle-pelakano (Leaf of God) , zacatechichi (bitter grass), “hoja madre” (mom’s leaf), Zacate de perro, ‘dream herb’.

Taxonomy – Household Compositae

Feedback – Calea zacatechichi is a closely branching shrub with triangular-ovate, coarsely toothed leaves Three/Four-2 half inc. (2-6.5 cm) lengthy. The inflorescence is densely many-flowered (often about 12). The plant grows from Mexico to Costa Rica in dry savannas and canyons (Schultes and Hoffmann, 1973).

The identify of the species comes from Nahuatl “zacatechichi” which suggests “bitter grass” . Calea zacatechichi is essential in native natural drugs, an infusion of the plant (roots. leaves and stem) is employed towards gastrointestinal issues, as an appetizer. cholagogue, cathartic. antidysentry treatment, and has additionally been reported to be an efficient febrifuge. Additionally it is utilized by the Chiapas and Chontal of Mexico as a shamanic plant. They name the herb ‘Tle-pelankano’ (leaf of God) and consider it facilitates divinatory messages throughout dreaming. When the reason for an sickness must be recognized, or a distant or misplaced individual discovered, dry leaves of the plant are smoked, drunk as a tea, and put underneath the pillow earlier than going to sleep.

“…zacatechichi administration seems to reinforce the quantity and/or recollection of goals throughout sleeping durations. The info are in settlement with the oneirogenic status of the plant among the many Chontal Indians… Calea zacatechichi induces episodes of energetic hypnagogic imagery throughout SWS stage I of sleep, a psychophysiological impact that may be the idea of the ethnobotanical use of the plant as an oneirogenic and oneiromantic agent. ” – Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18 (1986) 229-243 “Psychopharmacologic Evaluation of an Alleged Oneirogenic Plant : Calea Zacatechichi” by Jose-Luis Diaz and Carlos M. Contreras

Petiveria alliacea – Mucura

Indigenous names – Mucura, Chanviro, Mikur-ka’a, Anamu, Tipi
petivaria alliacea
Taxonomy – Phytolaccaceae

Feedback – Petiveria alliacea is an herbaceous perennial that’s indigenous to the Amazon Rainforest and may be present in different areas in Tropical America and Africa.

It has an extended historical past in vegetalismo practices in natural baths and as an ayahuasca (yage) admixture. Ritual amulets containing Mucura and Ajos Sacha are exchanged between companions. It additionally has makes use of as an analgesic, diuretic, emmenagogue, vermifuge, insecticide, and sedative. It’s a purifying and protecting plant. It’s thought to guard towards witchcraft and assaults from people and animals. Historically is used as a natural tub in a purifying cleaning ritual referred to as ‘limpias’. An infusion of two grams of dried mucura is soaked in a single day in a liter of water to scrub off the ‘saladera’, a ‘salt’ or phlegm that lingers within the delicate physique and is assumed to trigger dangerous luck.

Mansoa hymenaeamanilkara – Ajo Sacha

Indigenous names – Ajo Sacha, Lavender Garlic Vine, ajo macho, ajos del monte, bo’o-ho, be’o-ja, boens,frukutitei, niaboens, posatalu, pusanga, sacha ajo, shansque, boains.

The Spirit Lady of ‘Ajo Sacha’ by Yolanda Panduro & Don Francisco Montes Shuna.

Taxonomy – syn. Mansoa Alliacea, Bignoniaceae

Feedback – Actually translated as “false” or “pretend garlic”, ajo sacha is a vine-like tree whose leaves, when crushed, odor like garlic, with a touch of onion. Its leaves, bark, and roots have analgesic, antipyretic, and antirheumatic properties, and the preparations constructed from its elements can be utilized both orally or topically.

A revered plant instructor all through the Amazon basin, Ajos Sacha historically is used as a natural tub in a cleaning ritual referred to as ‘limpias’. The curanderos put together the leaves of Ajos Sacha by chopping them very rigorously into tiny items, water is added, and the essence strained and picked up right into a vessel, typically icaro’s are sung over it, and just a little magnet is dropped contained in the vessel, so as to add ‘power’ to the preperation (Luna 1984). Then the shopper washes themselves with the liquid and rinses the mouth out to cleanse them of the saladera (salt), a phlegm that has accumilated within the organism, inflicting dangerous luck and ailing well being (Dobkin de Rios 1981). The vegetalista whistles the suitable icaro over the affected person while ‘portray’ the individual with the liquid (Luna 1984).

Ajo sacha is used as an Ayahuasca admixture (Padoch and De Jong 1991, Luna 1984). Ayahuasca and different crops which have cathartic properties expel the phlegm from the organism. “Vegetalistas say that Ayahuasca is required for cleaning all of the flemosidades (phlegm formations) that accumulate within the intestines” (Luna 1984). It’s used usually for sensibility and consciousness, and Ajos Sacha is taken into account an ‘Amansador’, which signifies that individuals and animals won’t hurt the one that makes use of this plant. (Karsten 1964)

Salvia Divinorum – ska María Pastora

Indigenous names – ska Maria Pastora, hojas de la Pastora, Yerba María, pipiltzintzintli, hoja de adivinación (leaf of prophecy)

Taxonomy – Labiatae/Lamiaceae

Feedback – Salvia divinorum is native to forest ravines and different humid areas of the Sierra Mazateca of Oaxaca, Mexico, between 750 m and 1500 m altitude. Ethnobotanist R. Gordon Wasson has proposed S.Divinorum is the traditional Aztec plant pipiltzinzintli. Leaves of Salvia divinorum are used for curing and divination by the Mazatec Indians who name the plant “the leaves of the shepherdess” ; this time period might discuss with a nature deity, because the biblical Mary was not a shepherdess.

Salvia divinorum is historically employed as quids amounting to 20 to 80 leaves, nibbled by the curandero, the affected person (or apprentice) or each, relying on the state of affairs. Following its ingestion the Shepherdess is meant to information the person, however solely in absolute quiet and darkness. The plant can also be used as a “drugs” for ‘panzon de barrego’, a swollen stomach brought on by sorcery, in addition to for complications and rheumatism.

Mimosa hostilis – Jurema

Indigenous names –Vinho da Jurema, Jurema, Jurema Preta, Tepezcohuite, Tepescohuité, Arbre de peau, Ajucá, Caatinga

Taxonomy – Syn. Mimosa tenuiflora, Household Leguminosae

Feedback – Mimosa Hostilis happens from the huge Brasilian caatinga northward to the state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico (Barneby 1991). In Mexico the stem-bark is a well known ethnomedicine. In 1984, in Mexico Metropolis, the explosion of a fuel manufacturing unit brought on the demise of 500 individuals and badly burned greater than 5000. The hospitals and Purple Cross sought an emergency remedy for the multitude of sufferers and turned to the traditional Mayan Tepezcohuite, which proved extraordinarily profitable.

In 1946, Brasilian microbiologist Oswaldo Gonçalves De Lima reported the shamanic use of ajucá or vinho da jurema among the many Pancarurú Indians of Brejo dos Padres close to Tacaratú within the valley of the Rio São Francisco in southern Pernambuco. Chilly-water extractions of Jurema, with no different components, is employed by quite a few teams scattered sparsely over northeastern Brasil together with the Xucurú of Serra de Ararobá in northern Pernambuco (Hohenthal 1952); Kariri-Shoko of Colegio close to the mouth of the Rio São Francisco which demarcates the Alagoas/Sergipe border (Da Mota 1987); the Atikum of the Serra do Umã in western Pernambuco (De Azevedo Gronewald 1995); the Truká (Batista 1995).



Bibliography – Ayahuasca

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Luna, L E & Amaringo, P., 1991. Ayahuasca Visions : The Spiritual Iconography of a Peruvian Shaman. North Atlantic Press

Luna, L E. Vegetalismo : Shamanism among the many Mestizon Inhabitants of the Peruvian Amazon. Almqvist & Wiksell Internaltional. Stockholm/Sweden.

Luna, L E. 1984. The Idea of Crops as Academics amongst 4 Mestizo Shamans of Iquitos, Northeastern Peru. The Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 11 (1984) 135-156

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McKenna D, Towers GHN, Abott FS. 1984. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors in South American hallucinogenic crops: Tryptamine and beta-carboline constituents of ayahuasca. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 10:195-223.

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Savinelli, A, Halpern J H, MD. (1995). MAOI Contraindications. MAPS – Quantity 6 No 1 Autumn 1995 – p. 58

Schultes RE, Hofmann A (1992) Crops of the gods: Their sacred, therapeutic and hallucinogenic powers. Rochester, VT: Therapeutic Arts Press.

Schultes RE, Raffauf RF (1992) Vine of the soul: Drugs males, their crops and rituals within the Colombian Amazonia. Oracle, AZ: Syngertic Press.

Shanon, B. Ph.D (1998). Concepts and Reflections Related to Ayahuasca Visions. MAPS – Quantity eight Quantity Three Autumn 1998.

Shanon, B. Ph.D 1999. “Ayahuasca visions: A comparative cognitive investigation,” Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and the Research of Consciousness eight (in press). Edited by C. Rätsch & J. Baker. Berlin: VWB Verlag.

Topping, D,M. Ph.D. Professor Emeritus, College of Hawai’i. (1998). Ayahuasca and Most cancers: One Man’s Expertise. MAPS – Quantity eight Quantity Three Autumn 1998 – pp. 22-26

Topping, D,M. Ph.D. Professor Emeritus, College of Hawai’i. (1999). Ayahuasca and Most cancers: A Postscript. MAPS – Quantity 9 Quantity 2 Summer time 1999 – pp. 22-25

Bibliography – Cyperus – Piripiri

Schultes R.E & R.F Raffauf, 1990. “The Therapeutic Forest : Medicinal and Poisonous Crops of the Northwest Amazonia”. Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR.

Ott J., 1996, Pharmacotheon. Entheogenic medicine, their plant sources and historical past, 2° ed., Kennewick, CA, Pure Merchandise.

Plowman T.C., A. Leuchtmann, C. Blanet & Okay. Clay, 1990, Significance of the Fungus Balansia cyperi Infecting Medicinal Species of Cyperus from Amazonia, Econ.Bot., 44:452-462.

Bigwood J., J. Ott, C. Thompson & P. Nelly, 1979, Entheogenic Results of Ergonovine, J.Psyched.Medicine, 11:147-149.

Russo, Ethan B. M.D. Division of Neurosciences. 1996. “Schedule 1 Analysis Protocol: An Investigation of Psychedelic Crops and Compounds for Exercise in Serotonin Receptor Assays for Headache Remedy and Prophylaxis”. From MAPS – Quantity 7 Number one Winter 1996-97 – pp. Four-9.

McKenna, D.J. et al. 1986. “Ingredientes biodinamicos en las plantas que se mezclan al ayahuasca. Una farmacopea tradicional no investigada” America Indigena 46(1):73-99.

Bibliography -Nicotiana tabacum – Mapacho

“Mapacho” – Amazon Spiritquest Public Info Service

Ott ,Jonathon, “Pharmacotheon” pub. by: Pure Merchandise co.

Schultes, R.E. and R.F. Raffauf. 1995. “The Therapeutic Forest: medicinal and poisonous crops of the northwest Amazonia”, Dioscorides Press, Portland, Or.. ISBN Zero-931146-14-Three

Wilbert, J. 1987. “Tobacco and Shamanism in South America”, Yale College Press, New Haven, Conn.

Wilbert, J. 1991. “Does pharmacology corroborate the nicotine remedy and practices of South American shamanism?” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 32 (1-Three):179-186

A.L. Jussieu. “Mapacho Evaluation, preparation, and use of Nicotiana tobaccum”. Historic, Ethno & Financial Botany Collection Quantity 2

Bibliography – Brugmansia suaveolens – Toé

Schultes RE, Raffauf RF 1992. “Vine of the soul: Drugs males, their crops and rituals within the Colombian Amazonia”. Oracle, AZ: Synergetic Press.

Schultes, R.E., and Raffauf, 1990. “The Therapeutic Forest. Medicinal and Poisonous Crops of the Northwest Amazonia”, R.F. Dioscorides Press, 1990.

Rudgley, R, 2000. “The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Substances”. Griffin Commerce Paperback; ISBN: 0312263171

Ott ,Jonathan, 1996. “Pharmacotheon” pub. by: Pure Merchandise co.

De Smet, P.A.G.M. 1983. “A Multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating enema rituals within the western hemisphere”. JouRnal Of Ethnopharmacology 9(2,Three):129-166.

Bibliography – Brunfelsia grandiflora – Manacá, Chiric sanango

Schultes, R.E., and Raffauf, 1990. “The Therapeutic Forest. Medicinal and Poisonous Crops of the Northwest Amazonia”, R.F. Dioscorides Press, 1990.

Leslie Taylor, Private subject notes with Curandero Jose Guerra Cabrerra close to the village of Tam Hisaco. September, 1997, with Curandera Consuela Garcia of the Ecuadorian Ashur tribe, April, 1997, and with Curandero Don Antonio Montero at ACEER, Peru. August 1996

Rios, Marlene Dbkin de, 1992, “Amazon Healer, The Life and Occasions of an City Shaman”. Avery Publishing Group, Carden Metropolis Park, NY

“Highly effective and Uncommon Herbs from the Amazon and China”, 1993. The World Preservation Society, Inc.

Ott ,Jonathan, “Pharmacotheon” pub. by: Pure Merchandise co.

Plowman, T.C, 1977. “Brunfelsia in ethnomedicine” Botanical Museum Leaflets Harvard College 25(10):289-320

Plowman,T.C, 1980. “The genus Brunfelsia : A conspectus of the taxonomy and biogeography” In : Hawkes, J.G. et all. (Eds.) The Botany and Taxonomy of the Solancaceae. (Linnean Soc. SYmposium Ser. No. 7) Linean Soc., London, England. pp.475-491

Kohn, E.O. 1992. “Some Observations on using medicinal crops from main and secondary progress by the Runa of japanese lowland Ecuador” Journal of Ethnobiology 12(1): 141-152

Biblography – Tynnanthus panurensis – Clavohuasca

Schultes, R.E., and Raffauf, 1990. “The Therapeutic Forest. Medicinal and Poisonous Crops of the Northwest Amazonia”, R.F. Dioscorides Press, 1990.

Dennis J. Mckenna, L. E. Luna, And G. N. Towers, 1995. “Biodynamic Constituents in Ayahuasca Admixture Crops: An Uninvestigated People Pharmacopoeia” From Ethnobotany Evolution of a Self-discipline. ISBN Zero-931146-28-Three. Copyright © 1995 Dioscorides Press.

Duke, James and Vasquez, Rudolfo, 1994. “Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary”, CRC Press Inc.

James Duke, 1997. “The Inexperienced Pharmacy”, Rodale Press

Cruz, G.L. 1995. “Dicionario Das Plantas Uteis Do Brasil”, fifth ed., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Bertrand 1995.

Ott ,Jonathan, “Pharmacotheon” pub. by: Pure Merchandise co.

Luna, L,E. 1986. “Vegetalismo : Shamanism among the many Mestizo Inhabitants of the Peruvian Amazon. Almqvist and Wiksell Worldwide, Stockholm, Sweden.

Rivier, L and J.E. Lindgren. 1972. “Ayahuasca, the South American hallucinogenic drink : An Ethnobotanical and chemical investigation”. Financial Botany 26(1):101-129.

Pinkley, H.V. 1969. “Plant admixtures to Ayahuasca, the South American hallucinogenic drink”. Lloydia 32(Three):305-314.

Biblography – Calea Zacatechichi

Lilian Mayagoitia. Jose-luis Diaz And Carlos M. Contreras. “Psychopharmacologic Evaluation Of An Alleged Oneirogenic Plant: Calea Zacatechichi” – Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18 (1986) 229-243 Eleavier Scientific Publishers Eire Ltd.

Jose Luis Diaz, MD. “Ethnopharmacology and Taxonomy of Mexican Psychodysleptic Crops”. 1979

Bibliography – Ajo Sacha

Karsten, R. 1964. “Research within the Faith of the South-American Indians East of the Andes.” Helsinki : Societas Scientiarum Fennica. Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum XXIX.1.

Padoch, C. and W. De Jong. 1991. “The home gardens of Santa Rosa : Variety and variability in an Amazonian agricultural system”. Financial Botany 45(2):166-175.

Rios, Marlene Dobkin de, 1984, “Hallucinogens : Cross-Cultural Views.” College of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.

Ott ,Jonathan, “Pharmacotheon” pub. by: Pure Merchandise co.

Luna, L E. Vegetalismo : Shamanism among the many Mestizon Inhabitants of the Peruvian Amazon. Almqvist & Wiksell Internaltional. Stockholm/Sweden.

Bibliography – Anadenanthera

Altschul, S. von R. (1964) A Taxonomic Research of the Genus Anadenanthera. Contrib. Grey Herb.193. Three-65

Califano, M. (1976) El Chamanismo Mataco. Scripta Ethnologicano. Three, pt. 2- 7-60

Furst, P. T. (1974) Hallucinogens in Precolumbian Artwork. In: King, E.M. and Traylor (Ed.) Artwork and Setting in Native America. Texas Technical College, Particular Publications of the Museum, no. 7, pp. 55-102

Logan, N., (2000) Anadenanthera. Ethnobotany Particular Occasion at Fort Lewis School

Ott ,Jonathon, Pharmacotheon pub. by: Pure Merchandise co.

Pochettino M L. Cortella A R. Ruiz M. (1999) Hallucinogenic Snuff from Northwestern Argentina: Microscopial Identification of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Fabaceae) in Powdered Archeaological Materials. Financial Botany 53(2)

Schultes, R. E., Vilca and its Use. (1967) In: Efron,D.H. (Ed.) Ethnopharmacologic Seek for Psychoactive Medicine. Washington, D.C., US.Public Well being Service Publ. no. 1645, pp. 307-314

Schultes, R. E., (1972) The Genus Anadenanthera in Amerindian Cultures. Cambridge, Mass., Botanical Museum, Harvard College.

Torres, C Manuel.(1996) Proof for Antiquity of Entheogens within the Central Andes. Entheobotany: Shamanic Plant Science A Multi-Disciplinary Convention on Crops, Shamanism & Ecstatic States. 18-20 October, 1996 Palace of High quality Arts Theatre in San Francisco, CA.

Torres, C Manuel. (1992) Cohoba/DMT Snuffs. Botanical Preservation Corps Subject Seminars, Audio recorded lecture.

Torres, C Manuel. (1999) The Use of Psychoactive Snuff Powders in Pre-Columbian San Pedro de Atacama, Chile. From ‘Visions That The Crops Gave Us. Richard F Brush Artwork Gallery.

Torres, C. M., Repke, D. B., Chan, Okay., McKenna, D., Llagostera, A., & Schultes, R. E. (1991). Snuff powders from pre-Hispanic San Pedro de Atacama: Chemical and contextual evaluation. Present Anthropology, 32(5) 640-649.

Biblography – Salvia Divinorum

Valdes L.J., et al. 1983. “Ethnopharmacology of Ska Maria Pastora (Salvia divinorum, Epling and Jativa-M.)” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 7(Three):287-312

Ott J., 1996, Pharmacotheon. Entheogenic medicine, their plant sources and historical past, 2° ed., Kennewick, CA, Pure Merchandise.

Wasson, R.G. 1962. “A New Mexican psychotropic drug from the mint household” Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard College 20(Three): 77-84.

Bibliography – Mimosa Hostilis

Ott ,Jonathon, Pharmacotheon pub. by: Pure Merchandise co.